History, Culture and Civilization

Cultural and Historical Heritage

Throughout the different epochs of the ancient history, Oman was known for its maritime leadership and close historical connection with the civilizations of the ancient world. In certain epochs, Oman was also an influential naval, political, commercial and cultural force. Since the beginning of the modern Omani Renaissance in 1970, the Omani government has paid great attention to maintaining its tangible and intangible cultural heritage as the government believes in the importance of heritage as one of the essential components of the Omani identity. History books recount the influx of many of the Arab tribes to Oman to settle since ancient times. Historical sources mention that the first major migrations were led by Malik bin Fahm al-Azdi at the end of the first century.

Oman Name

Literature review show that Al-Azd called Oman by this name because their homes were on a valley called Oman in Ma’rib. Linnaeus, one of the oldest Roman historians who lived in the first century, mentioned “Oman” in his writings. Also, “Oman” was mentioned by Ptolemy, who lived in the second century. Grohman thinks that the “Oman” mentioned by these two historians is Sohar, which was the most important economic center in the region in the classical era. Oman had other names throughout history:


The Sumerians and the countries of Mesopotamia called Oman “Majan” or Jabal al Nahas. The name indicates the strategic importance of this place and its natural resources, especially copper and precious stones.


The Persians named Oman as "Mazoon”, which derives from “Muzn”, meaning clouds and abundant flowing water. Perhaps this explains the rise and prosperity of agriculture in Oman since ancient times, and the stability and civilization that accompanied it.

Modern Renaissance

On July 23, 1970, a new dawn shone over Oman when His Majesty the Late Sultan Qaboos bin Said - may Allah rest his soul in peace - assumed power. Under His Majesty’s wise leadership, Oman initiated its modern renaissance march and gradually started regaining its ancient glorious past. The Late Sultan Qaboos - may Allah rest his soul in peace - laid the foundations of a modern state that is based on balanced and sustainable development. On January 11, 2020, His Majesty Sultan Haitham bin Tariq came to the throne in a swift transition, succeeding Sultan Qaboos. From the early days of his glorious reign, His Majesty Sultan Haitham bin Tariq started laying a solid economic base that would create a conducive environment to develop the rest of the sectors. His Majesty has also paid special attention to young people and also laid down the constants of Oman's foreign policy, which is based on peaceful coexistence between nations and people, good neighborliness, non-interference in the internal affairs of others, and respect for the sovereignty of other states.

Renewed Renaissance

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